How do we know a council is ecumenical? Chris Lofton and Craig Truglia discuss the different views of what makes a council “ecumenical.” The views discussed are the “Papal Ratification,” “Pentarchy Ratification, ” and “Reception” views.

Ultimately, the ramifications of this discussion pertain to Christians of all denominations. How do Christians recognize Christian teaching? What Scriptures are Canon? What teachings, from those Scriptures, are “historical” Christian doctrines? I think this is a much more profound, epistemological issue than what mechanically makes a council magically ecumenical.