In a word, yes.

The following is going to be more about Orthodox theological principles than proof texting from the fathers. For that reason, the comments here should be taken with a grain of salt. Before explaining how everything works as best I understand it, I want to make clear that we are talking about the eternal Lake of Fire, that comes to exist after the physical resurrection of the dead during the second coming of Christ when the Last Judgement occurs. Due to there being no physical body before this point, I am sincerely not sure whether those in Hades yet feel literal physical pain. Perhaps their spiritual anguish can be described as physical.

However, when the damned have their bodies joined to them, this will certainly no longer be the case. The reason why is because physical pain results from sin. Let me explain. Before the Fall, human nature was not disordered whatsoever. Not being glorified, the body was not truly immortal, nor unsusceptible to future defects such as corruptibility, pain, and death. However, until sin occurred, the latter could not take place.

Too often, people think that pain, corruptibility, and death are from some arbitrary decree made by God. Rather, they are something permitted by God when He withdrew grace from man due to sin so as to enable humanity’s repentance, making possible the restoration of the original state. As Saint Maximus and others observe, when Adam chose pleasure thinking it would have no consequences on his eternal state (in fact, he felt it would have a positive consequence, that it would make him like God), it introduced pain into the world. With pleasure comes pain–this is the law of the universe. It is the same reason why what goes up must come down, why tasty foods are bad for you, and broccoli is good for you. (I am speaking generally. I understand that the laws of thermodynamics and other things are most nuanced than this).

True joy, to the Orthodox, is dispassionate—because God does not experience visceral pleasure. The natural human state is capable of eating and therefore sense perception/visceral stimulation; but it is supposed to employ these things dispassionately. Our nature is specifically “designed” to pursue and glorify God in all things, not to pursue pleasure. After all, pleasure brings about pain out of necessity. This is why voluntarily accepting pain for righteousness’ sake, voluntarily as the Lord did, actually liberates one from the destructive spiral that pleasure and its pursuit introduces. This is also why aberrant practices like false asceticism and self-righteous deprivations contribute nothing to salvation, but rather are detrimental as Saint Paul teaches.

In summary, voluntary, passionate pleasure brings about involuntary pain. Voluntary pain brings about involuntary, dispassionate pleasure. For those too sadistically minded, it must be noted pain for pain’s sake accomplishes nothing and giving in to perverse and passionate pleasures, such as self-pity, will rob one from any spiritual benefit.

Back to the question at hand. Adam’s sin, introducing the pleasure-pain paradigm, was not the only problem. In fact, the chief problem is that Adam permanently altered the whole way human nature operates–its tropos. Human nature was not permanently destroyed by the Fall, as if this were the case none of us would really even be human. Human nature is just as good now as it has ever been and ever will be. Rather, the way human nature operates since the Fall has been damaged. This fallen tropos is also paradigmatic. While human nature preceding the Fall and after its glorification in Christ is incapable of even conceiving evil, for everyone in between the internal battle of Rom 7 applies. We are often warring against conflicting desires, or worse yet, not even sure in all honesty what is right and what is wrong so as to even pick the right thing. This gnomic willing/internal conflict is not natural and it is the source of our disease. The pleasure and pain dichotomy is the symptom. Gnomic willing is the cause.

Christ’s incarnation is the beginning of the atonement. He assumed corruptible flesh from His mother Mary, the Theotokos. Her flesh had the fallen tropos of humanity. However, when her flesh was granted to Himself at the very moment of His conception, it ceased to be of sin so that at no point, even for a fraction of a second, was Christ’s flesh sinful. The tropos of Christ’s incarnate flesh was not disordered, nor could it be, as this is impossible for both deified flesh (the Lord’s) and divinized flesh (all of those with resurrected bodies experiencing eternal theosis in heaven).

His incarnation might have ended the Fall for Himself and arguably, if sin never entered the world, would have been all that was needed to make the path to permanent theosis possible. In any event, the incarnation alone did not undo the fallen tropos of human nature. Rather, Christ assumed the effects of this tropos voluntarily without any sin, meaning, disordered gnomic willing—hence His body being in the likeness of sin as Rom 8:3 delineates.

Permit me to explain. Christ assumed corruptibility, pain, ignorance*, and even death voluntarily. (*As for ignorance, Christ did this selectively according to age as a condescension to those around Him according to Saint Maximus—hence as an infant he was not conceiving of calculus though it was certainly in His capacity to do so according to both His human and divine natures, as He can do and know all things eternally, pre and post incarnation.) Having assumed the effects on human nature that a Fallen tropos entails, He never assumed its cause, the pursuit of pleasure and the blameworthy passions.

The preceding is critical. Christ’s voluntary assumption of passibility and corruptibility is literally an “illegal operation.” It undoes the cause and effect that sin necessarily introduced into humanity. All of Christ’s life was atoning and His death its necessary end. Assuming all of the effects of the Fall, but not its cause, makes it possible for all, who are personally implicated in its cause, not to experience its necessary effect which is due to them.

This is precisely why the atonement is not universal: one’s tropos is left what it is without a union with Christ. Such a union entails a necessary co-energization/operation and co-willing with the Holy Trinity. This is made possible by both the grace of the Holy Trinity and the willful cooperation of the recipient with the same grace. We co-will and co-operate by actively following and responding to the divine will and energies. This is what baptism introduces, and what faithfulness maintains.

Due to the preceding, works in of themselves are not salvific. To operate consistent with Godliness, but not to will God’s will, is not Godly whatsoever and cannot contribute towards salvation. This is why schismatics, who hate His body (the Church) cannot be saved by their works or their incomplete faith. Their faith is counterfeit, because without love, faith and works are nothing. Those who are not joined to Christ mysteriously/sacramentally (even if invisibly, such as baptism by blood, angelic conversions, and the like) cannot be saved.

Salvation is not a switch God flips. Rather, it is something God provides by grace and the recipient must through faithfulness permit to occur. Those who are saved and have put on Christ through baptism and cooperated with His grace, almost universally do so imperfectly. We continually fail to live up to our baptisms (this requires lifelong discipline and “training” so to say) which requires faith and humility, as only the grace of God enables us to overcome the limitations of the fallen tropos. Therefore, we feel pain and die, but with the hope of eternity as the grace of God does not return to Him empty—it was given and received with the express purpose of saving us. Despite our gnomic willing, pursuing God’s will and accepting suffering righteously, we look forward to our eternal reward.

Upon the universal resurrection, I speculate, humanity’s glorified bodies are no longer physically from Adam, but reconstituted physically by God. In effect, we are all like Adam—made by God Himself. The will of the individual joined to his resurrected body, her/his faithfulness or lack thereof, now determines the tropos of this body and how open it will be to the grace for eternity. For those who wrestled against sin and persevered in the faith, it will be open to the grace of God in the same proportion. Christ saves these individuals from their former bodies of death, as Rom 7 calls them. The preceding is precisely why those who overcome more hardship in even more trying circumstances, will attain to greater reward in heaven—they are that much more faithful and open to grace. (cf Saint John Cassian, Conference 7.28)

The damned, however, never repented. Even when given a “second chance” with a body which is not fallen, it is instantly corrupted by a tropos that is of their own doing and acceptance. They voluntarily accept the effects of the Fall for eternity because they accepted its cause—sin. Not repenting of sin, they live with its eternal consequences.

Due to going over the preceding, it is now not difficult to understand precisely why Hell will be physically painful. Pain is a necessary consequence of a wayward will, as are corruptibility and death. Therefore, the damned will be enduring emotional, spiritual, psychological, and physical pain eternally; coinciding with a continual disintegration as eternal corruption entails and death, which naturally coincides with corruption meeting its end. However, because its end is never met, like an undefined number approaching infinity, the state is never completed—it just gets eternally worse forever.

Being that people have no sense of nuance and need things explained graphically, I am personally unsure how an increasingly disintegrated body receives pain stimuli when its nervous system deteriorates to the point of nothingness. I am also unaware how a soul, necessarily bound to this infinitely deteriorated body, which is never completely annihilated, perceives pain. I can only surmise the laws that govern the passions as entailed above—it is indeed possible that the physical component necessarily alters when the literal physical medium alters.

In any event, without sin being undone via repentance, there is no other possible end unless the entire Orthodox anthropological and soteriological paradigm is untrue.

If the preceding is terrifying enough, I have not even commented on what God’s unmitigated grace feels like to the unrepentant. Saint Irenaeus, and many subsequent saints (Basil, John of the Ladder, Mark of Ephesus), all compare this grace to fire. Think of those blinded by God’s light in the Scriptures. Now imagine one cannot turn around, close one’s eyes, and call mountains to fall upon oneself to act as a shield. This is an additional, infinitely more terrifying element. God does not command us to preach the Gospel for nothing.

The preceding are all general rules that I have theorized. I warned in the beginning about the grain of salt one ought to take with these comments. What it means for those who “never heard the Gospel,” the unbaptized, schismatics, heretics, or whoever else, I cannot comment on the fates of individuals. I would hold out the hope that many more are repenting in a Christologically centered way than we ever can visibly see.

I will end my speculations here. Not being a teacher, a priest, a theologian, or anything my hope people can profit from this by more fully unpacking the soteriological and anthropological theology of the fathers. This is my own poor attempt, please forgive me. Being that, if I cared to, I can list fathers who agree with every premise and conclusion here means that this synthesis gives readers somewhere to get started, and hopefully, present a better Patristic harmonization than what is offered here.